The State of America's Children® 2020

Child Poverty

>>>The State of America’s Children 2020 – Child Poverty Tables
The State of America’s Children 2020 – Child Poverty Tables2020-02-19T12:34:11-05:00

Table 2: Poor Children in America in 2018—A Portrait

Number Who Are PoorPercent Who Are PoorPercent of Poor Children Who Are:
Among All Children11,869,00016.2%100%
     Extremely Poor5,042,0006.942.5
     Under 64,080,00017.434.4
     Under 6 and Extremely Poor1,814,0007.715.3
By Race/Ethnicity
White3,265,0008.927.5
Hispanic4,436,00023.737.4
Black3,043,00030.125.6
Asian436,00011.43.7
American Indian/Alaskan Native194,00029.11.6
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander30,00012.40.3
Two or more races466,00015.03.9
By Geography
In Cities > 50,0004,818,00020.740.6
In Suburbs5,187,00012.843.7
Outside Cities and Suburbs1,866,00020.015.7
By Region
Northeast1,602,00013.913.5
Midwest2,177,00014.118.3
South5,358,00018.945.1
West2,734,00015.323.0
By Family Structure
In Single Parent Family7,698,00034.166.8a
In Married Couple Family3,820,0007.633.2a
By Family Working Status
Any Family Member Works8,075,00011.870.3b
Works Full-Time, Year Round4,048,0006.935.2b
Head of Family Works6,448,00011.156.1b
Works Full-Time, Year Round2,775,0006.324.1b
Adults 18-6421,130,00010.7
Seniors 65+5,146,0009.7

a Percentages calculated relative to the number of poor children related to the head of household (11,519,000) rather than the total number of poor children (11,869,000).

b Percentages calculated relative to the number of poor children in related families (11,491,000) rather than the total number of poor children (11,869,000).
Notes: A family of four was considered poor in 2018 with an annual income below $25,701 and extremely poor with an income below half that amount ($12,851). Poverty estimates differ based on the source of the Census data. Census data on poverty is collected through both the American Community Survey (ACS) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS provides the most accurate national data on poverty and is therefore the official source of national poverty estimates. The ACS uses a larger sample size and is therefore preferred for state-level poverty data. All racial categories exclude children of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic children can be of any race.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey. 2019. “2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement,” Tables B-1, POV01, POV03, POV07, POV13, POV21, POV40. https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/data/tables.html. Additional customized tables generated using Data Ferrett. https://dataferrett.census.gov/.

Table 3: Federal Poverty Thresholds and Guidelines, 2018

Federal Poverty Thresholdsa
Poverty (100 Percent)Extreme Poverty (50 Percent)
Family SizePer YearPer MonthPer WeekPer YearPer MonthPer Week
1$12,784$1,065$246$6,392$533$123
216,2471,3543128,124677156
319,9851,6653849,993833192
425,7012,14249412,8511,071247
530,4592,53858615,2301,269293
634,5332,87866417,2671,439332
739,1943,26675419,5971,633377
843,6023,63483921,8011,817419
9 or More51,3934,28398825,6972,141494
 Federal Poverty Guidelinesb
Family SizePoverty
1$12,140
216,460
320,780
425,100
529,420
633,740
738,060
842,380
Each Additional Person beyond 84,320

a The federal poverty thresholds are used to calculate those who are considered poor and extremely poor. The poverty threshold numbers in the table are weighted averages of the actual thresholds. The actual poverty thresholds vary slightly based on the number of children and, for households of size one and two, whether the houshold includes someone over 64. Except for Alaska and Hawaii, which have slightly higher thresholds, no adjustments are made for differences in living costs from state to state. Extreme poverty is defined as half of the poverty thresholds.

b The federal poverty guidelines (also called the Federal Poverty Level) are a simplification of the poverty thresholds used to determine eligibility for public benefits and are adjusted annually to account for inflation.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. 2019. “Poverty Thresholds for 2018 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years.” https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html; U.S Department of Health and Human Services. 2018. “Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines.” Federal Register 83 (12). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2018-01-18/pdf/2018-00814.pdf.

Table 4: Poor and Extremely Poor Children by Age, 2018

Poor ChildrenExtremely Poor Children
Under 18Under 6Under 18Under 6
StateNumberPercent Rank*NumberPercent Rank*NumberPercent Rank*NumberPercent Rank*
Alabama255,18623.8%4586,56625.7%44120,81811.3%47      42,20812.6%45
Alaska25,32714.1179,96916.11810,7306.018        4,2596.915
Arizona324,62220.137112,70322.038130,3558.132      43,3718.527
Arkansas170,76924.74762,14828.14767,0769.742      25,00811.342
California1,541,06717.427499,72617.522660,7457.526    218,6907.719
Colorado149,48711.9647,86412.0465,1415.25      22,6505.74
Connecticut102,08314.11733,20015.61543,5786.018      16,6577.821
Delaware37,28318.73311,97519.73115,0897.627        4,9638.223
District of Columbia29,04823.110,60220.419,46015.5        7,82215.1
Florida819,25619.736285,01421.434339,8498.233    126,6569.533
Georgia504,74520.539162,62421.536217,3518.836      74,5869.935
Hawaii35,36811.9614,76414.81017,5015.913        7,1467.217
Idaho62,85514.31922,11316.21924,4615.610        7,8335.74
Illinois456,92516.224157,43117.724195,6726.923      68,0337.719
Indiana275,37018.02994,01819.330121,6587.931      44,4619.132
Iowa97,22213.51234,68714.81038,5505.46      15,1846.512
Kansas103,21014.92136,47116.72040,8715.913      15,3487.016
Kentucky225,71023.04478,10524.642107,87411.046      39,87512.645
Louisiana283,21826.248105,05729.449125,97111.648      53,27914.948
Maine34,87814.52012,08815.81614,8246.220        4,5415.98
Maryland152,23711.6450,85312.0478,1025.913      25,5406.09
Massachusetts163,78812.2955,05413.1974,2345.58      26,3776.311
Michigan412,69219.434146,62521.737196,5559.340      74,76611.141
Minnesota149,50211.7550,68712.1659,9314.72      21,2775.12
Mississippi192,95227.85063,29129.95099,24814.350      35,97617.050
Missouri247,20918.33186,50220.033104,0727.728      36,9498.527
Montana35,99916.02312,70517.52215,6537.024        6,0078.324
Nebraska60,11012.91123,33315.01222,3264.84        9,0645.87
Nevada120,09117.72840,67518.72947,8717.125      17,9338.324
New Hampshire26,83010.639,13312.3713,9535.58        4,5196.110
New Jersey264,25313.71393,79515.314113,6075.913      39,5146.512
New Mexico124,02426.34939,55128.54861,94013.249      21,88215.849
New York743,02418.632260,12219.731342,0778.635    119,0789.030
North Carolina455,97120.238151,03321.434199,5308.836      71,52610.136
North Dakota17,1459.927,02611.438,0574.72        4,0466.614
Ohio495,61619.535180,83722.339224,3938.836      88,18910.940
Oklahoma202,77921.74174,57824.64293,31010.044      37,02712.244
Oregon134,38315.72245,30316.82158,5526.822      22,7028.426
Pennsylvania434,73616.826145,98617.825201,9627.829      70,1718.527
Rhode Island36,13518.02912,18818.52816,5058.233        6,4759.834
South Carolina245,82122.64381,55724.041104,5569.641      35,83410.539
South Dakota34,20116.42512,87218.32716,3477.829        7,09110.136
Tennessee330,99822.342124,37126.245147,4499.943      61,23312.947
Texas1,545,36221.140532,05322.540664,6059.139    240,00710.136
Utah87,4459.5129,87010.1136,2393.91      13,4164.51
Vermont13,71212.183,95711.326,5455.811        1,8425.33
Virginia252,47513.71389,46815.113122,8266.721      46,3547.821
Washington204,47012.51070,07812.9887,9125.46      31,0485.74
West Virginia86,71324.54629,54827.04638,11610.845      12,91911.843
Wisconsin175,24314.01662,37015.91774,0255.913      28,1407.217
Wyoming17,98613.8157,30817.8257,5005.811        3,6999.030
United States11,869,17316.2%4,079,70117.4% 5,041,8486.9%  1,813,9247.7%

* States are ranked 1 to 50 with 1 meaning the lowest child poverty rate and 50 meaning the highest child poverty rate.

Notes: Poverty estimates differ based on the sources of Census data. Census data on poverty is collected through both the American Community Survey (ACS) and Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS provides the most accurate national data on poverty and is therefore the official source of national poverty estimates. The ACS uses a larger sample size and is preferred for state-level poverty data.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. 2019. “2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates,” Tables B17020 and B17024. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/; U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey. 2019. “2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.” Accessed using Data Ferrett. https://dataferrett.census.gov/.

Table 5: Number of Poor Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2018

WhiteHispanicBlackAsian/Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific IslanderAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeTwo or More Races
Alabama          80,588          31,091         129,984                   973               966          13,036
Alaska            6,470            1,822            1,035                 3,243            9,672            3,711
Arizona          60,754         190,993          22,913                 3,186          42,590          23,781
Arkansas          74,039          28,199          53,493                 3,856            1,396          14,312
California         206,819      1,054,493         135,493             101,304          12,937         103,452
Colorado          51,608          72,932          14,634                 3,300            2,709          12,378
Connecticut          22,460          54,406          23,215                 2,020 n/a            9,536
Delaware            7,473          10,060          17,294                   793 n/a            2,888
District of Columbia               978            2,894          24,684                   138 n/a               570
Florida         200,509         320,015         267,000               10,592            2,609          44,777
Georgia         121,486         108,682         241,473                 7,898            2,708          31,426
Hawaii            4,119            7,587               167               11,539 n/a          18,079
Idaho          35,273          23,200 n/a                   364            1,609            4,554
Illinois         131,003         143,300         150,579               12,648            1,077          28,360
Indiana         135,906          46,804          66,009                 6,600               503          25,750
Iowa          52,388          18,485          15,432                 1,143               414          10,813
Kansas          46,418          31,145          14,224                 1,702            1,977          11,835
Kentucky         156,060          19,184          33,704                 1,997 n/a          14,408
Louisiana          77,256          21,794         170,486                 1,292            1,020          13,390
Maine          29,503            1,484            1,035 n/a               843            1,928
Maryland          31,409          29,040          76,906                 4,942 n/a            8,970
Massachusetts          46,446          77,029          29,269                 8,534 n/a          15,391
Michigan         195,930          46,855         129,791                 9,376            3,028          35,512
Minnesota          54,191          26,508          41,375               11,845            7,267          12,454
Mississippi          46,471          10,421         127,068                 1,242            2,184            6,567
Missouri         135,555          24,155          68,654                   837               809          18,439
Montana          22,731            1,680 n/a n/a            9,234            2,402
Nebraska          26,309          19,720            7,650                   841            1,956            5,060
Nevada          20,327          63,812          20,430                 3,422            3,980          12,722
New Hampshire          18,771            4,932            2,070                   745 n/a            1,291
New Jersey          61,077         123,273          63,397               12,940               381          11,855
New Mexico          16,075          85,490            1,695                 1,050          22,612            5,933
New York         227,107         279,488         176,774               49,509            4,280          50,157
North Carolina         133,366         126,207         157,745               10,544            6,326          30,182
North Dakota            8,028            1,3082,857 n/a            4,504               702
Ohio         246,259          46,879         153,136                 6,289               979          50,937
Oklahoma          74,942          50,482          31,215                 2,725          21,278          28,903
Oregon          67,055          45,828            5,463                 3,007            3,082          11,112
Pennsylvania         173,235         109,795         122,209               12,631               661          35,580
Rhode Island            9,985          18,901            3,965                 1,366 n/a            2,697
South Carolina          67,175          37,684         124,892                 1,211            1,342          16,568
South Dakota          11,444            3,031 n/a n/a          17,523            2,989
Tennessee         147,692          44,461         115,403                 3,523            1,315          20,017
Texas         205,226      1,045,675         245,428               33,260            7,128          54,070
Utah          44,004          30,241            3,347                 2,450            3,560            4,725
Vermont          11,570               797 n/a n/a n/a               806
Virginia          87,795          41,652          96,880                 8,725               520          19,373
Washington          76,880          72,371          19,136               12,758            5,490          26,322
West Virginia          73,590            1,503            4,852 n/a n/a            5,933
Wisconsin          76,863          31,125          46,404                 6,652            3,961          13,898
Wyoming          11,553            5,457 n/an/a            1,754 n/a
United States      3,264,566      4,436,361      3,042,507             465,808         194,367         465,565

Notes: Poverty estimates differ based on the source of Census data. Census data on poverty is collected through both the American Community Survey (ACS) and Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS provides the most accurate national data on poverty and is therefore the official source of national poverty estimates. The ACS uses a larger sample size and is preferred for state-level poverty data. For national estimates, all racial categories exclude children of Hispanic ethnicity. For state estimates, only the “White” racial category excludes children of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic children can be of any race. “N/A” means data were not available.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. 2019. “2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates,” Tables B17020B-I. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/; U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey. 2019. “2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.” Accessed using Data Ferrett. https://dataferrett.census.gov/.

Table 6: Percent of Poor Children by Race/Ethnicity, 2018

WhiteHispanicBlackAsian/ Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific IslanderAmerican Indian/Alaska NativeTwo or More Races
Alabama13.137.741.16.922.330.7
Alaska7.410.416.326.927.813.2
Arizona9.726.626.47.543.919.5
Arkansas17.132.644.928.729.234.0
California9.222.828.49.720.312.2
Colorado7.418.626.29.124.112.3
Connecticut5.730.524.95.9n/a16.5
Delaware7.731.932.39.5n/a24.5
District of Columbia3.513.535.78.8n/a6.9
Florida11.724.121.410.122.717.0
Georgia11.429.629.48.327.623.4
Hawaii9.814.13.610.6n/a14.1
Idaho10.728.6n/a7.424.220.5
Illinois9.120.435.49.113.817.6
Indiana12.627.237.820.319.128.6
Iowa9.425.340.86.714.828.9
Kansas10.124.732.410.331.922.7
Kentucky20.233.141.813.1n/a26.3
Louisiana14.129.543.28.916.525.0
Maine13.825.617.6n/a34.617.5
Maryland5.813.919.16.6n/a8.9
Massachusetts5.830.122.49.4n/a15.8
Michigan13.826.438.214.025.426.6
Minnesota6.223.433.416.539.414.3
Mississippi13.734.443.225.460.127.3
Missouri13.926.839.13.517.021.5
Montana12.911.2n/an/a41.718.9
Nebraska8.224.330.08.330.416.8
Nevada8.722.929.68.237.217.8
New Hampshire8.830.737.49.4n/a10.3
New Jersey6.923.223.26.99.611.1
New Mexico14.330.021.317.041.121.2
New York11.928.126.716.523.319.5
North Carolina11.433.531.214.922.921.5
North Dakota6.014.640.2n/a31.79.2
Ohio13.629.742.410.921.128.1
Oklahoma15.230.942.215.024.723.3
Oregon12.523.926.48.831.214.8
Pennsylvania10.133.835.013.213.522.8
Rhode Island8.736.421.521.9n/a22.2
South Carolina11.436.638.87.523.227.7
South Dakota7.627.0n/an/a60.126.6
Tennessee15.430.840.413.840.726.2
Texas9.028.827.310.318.216.0
Utah6.518.725.319.935.39.2
Vermont11.527.3n/an/an/a17.0
Virginia9.016.227.17.712.312.0
Washington8.420.726.510.023.013.4
West Virginia23.321.639.1n/an/a38.2
Wisconsin8.721.042.415.731.219.3
Wyoming11.328.8n/an/a32.0n/a
United States8.9%23.7%30.1%11.4%29.1%15.0%

Notes: Poverty estimates differ based on the source of Census data. Census data on poverty is collected through both the American Community Survey (ACS) and Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS provides the most accurate national data on poverty and is therefore the official source of national poverty estimates. The ACS uses a larger sample size and is preferred for state-level poverty data. For national estimates, all racial categories exclude children of Hispanic ethnicity. For state estimates, only the “White” racial category excludes children of Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic children can be of any race. “N/A” means data were not available.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau. 2019. “2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates,” Tables B17020B-I. https://data.census.gov/cedsci/; U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey. 2019. “2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.” Accessed using Data Ferrett. ttps://dataferrett.census.gov/.